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By Sheila R. Colla, Liber Ero Fellow
It’s an exciting and scary time to be a conservation biologist specializing in pollinators living in Ontario. The province is accepting comments on their pollinator action plan until March 7th. When this was proposed early on, I was optimistic. However, due to the misinterpretation (or disregard) of science and the intense lobbying of industry, there is potential that this plan can do more harm to pollinator populations than good.
OK, let’s break down the Ontario pollinator situation. The province is trying to target the issue of pollinator conservation with a single plan. However, what I see are three completely separate issues, each requiring their own recommendations, plans, and governance. These simply cannot be tackled by the same plan and, most importantly, the measures which will benefit one may be detrimental to another. There is good scientific understanding of each issue and with the right people at the table, evidence-based recommendations can be made for each. But currently, one ministry has been given the lead on the province’s single plan, which is problematic for reasons I allude to below.
Issue #1. Halting the extinction of pollinators
There are numerous pollinators deemed to be at risk of extinction (as defined by the IUCN Red List) in Ontario. The decline of pollinator species has also been documented globally and has led to increased concern. The causes of these declines are complex and, in many cases, species-specific. For example, the Karner Blue butterfly has ecological requirements associated with native grasslands, such as the specialization of its larva on Blue Lupine. The main threat to this species is habitat loss (i.e., Oak Savanna). Another example is the endangered Rusty-patched Bumble Bee, which was a common species throughout much of southern Ontario as recently as the 1990s but hasn’t been seen since 2009. It is a habitat and forage generalist. Threats to this species are thought to be a combination of pathogen spillover from managed bees and climate change.
Conserving species at risk of extinction requires ongoing monitoring and tailored conservation management based on knowledge of the species’ ecological needs and specific threats. Also, using the precautionary principle, remaining populations of these declining species need to be protected from additional stressors such as resource competition with non-native species (yes, this includes honey bees), exposure to pesticides or disease spillover, and habitat loss. The protection of species deemed to be at risk of extinction falls under the jurisdiction of the MNRF.
Issue #2. Maintaining pollinator biodiversity
Numerous scholars and scientific research have supported that the best way to manage a natural resource or ecosystem service is to maintain as much natural variation as possible. This is especially important for increasing resilience under climate change. We can’t predict which species will suffer or do well, so let’s keep as many around as possible instead of putting our eggs in one basket. Study after study shows that agricultural pollination of many crops benefits from a diverse pollinator community. Keeping a diverse pollinator community, which consists of both rare and common native species, thus increases the sustainability of our natural ecosystems and agricultural production. Since the protection of this ecosystem service is crucial to the protection of our environment, this issue should fall under the jurisdiction of the MOECC.
To promote pollinator diversity, we should be protecting and creating high quality pollinator habitat wherever possible. This includes in urban areas, agricultural lands, and natural areas. Habitat should have a variety of native wildflowers, trees, and shrubs which produce forage throughout the growing season and incorporate nesting and overwintering sites which benefit many species (e.g., exposed sandy soils for ground-nesting bees). To whatever extent possible, these areas should only be exposed to pesticides, non-native animals, and non-native plants when there is no alternative.
Issue #3. Supporting the European Honey Bee industry
That’s correct, industry. As in, people make money by keeping these animals and selling their honey and/or pollination services. There have been numerous examples of the industry promoting the expansion of their businesses unethically as environmental initiatives. That being said, the industry’s bottom line is also vulnerable to a variety of stressors. Insecticides are used in agricultural areas to target crop pests, but honey bees are insects too and are harmed in the process. Keeping any animal in higher than natural densities, as we do with livestock and fisheries, results in disease outbreaks and proliferation. Honey bees have experienced this with numerous parasites, including the Varroa mite. In Ontario, climate change has been cited as a threat to honey bees. I find this somewhat perplexing, as honey bees have evolved to deal not with harsh winters but with Mediterranean and arid climates instead. In any case, overwintering losses are another pressure on the industry. While all of these threats do affect a beekeeper’s bottom line, we are not in danger of the European Honey Bee going extinct. When colonies don’t do well, beekeepers have the option of importing queens or colonies from other countries. For more informaton on the industry, see here. Mitigating issues associated with honey bee losses falls under the jurisdiction of OMAFRA.
I can only hope that before Ontario’s pollinator action plan is finalized, the province does what is right and strengthens the plan and its governance structure to effectively deal with EACH of these three pollinator issues separately, using the best available scientific evidence and expertise.
In the words of Aldo Leopold, “A thing is right when it tends to preserve the integrity, stability and beauty of the biotic community. It is wrong when it tends otherwise.”
Liber Ero Fellow Sheila Colla was recently involved in a large-scale study, published in Science, which looked at the effects of climate change on North American and European bumble bees. Bumble bees are important pollinators of native flowering plants and certain crops. Previous research has shown some species have suffered drastic declines in recent decades. The current study was a collaborative project between a dozen research institutions, NGOs, and natural history museums. In order to look at how climate change was affecting range shifts among native bumble bees, over 400,000 specimens of 67 species dating back over a century were considered. The take home message is that bumble bees are not moving north with climate change, while the southern portions of their ranges are contracting (see Fig. 1). This means bumble bees are being trapped in the middle portions of their ranges, which may make them more vulnerable to other threats going forward, such as habitat loss, pesticide use, invasive species, and disease.
For more media coverage of this study, please see:
-Bumblebees are trapped by warming climate, study finds, Globe and Mail http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/national/bumblebees-trapped-by-warming-climate-study-finds/article25394453/
-Bumblebees Decimated by Climate Change: Study, Discovery News http://news.discovery.com/animals/insects/bumblebees-decimated-by-climate-change-study-150713.htm
– Bumblebee Disappearance Caused by Climate Change, Study Finds, Newsweek http://www.newsweek.com/climate-change-linked-bee-die-offs-352303
– Bumble Bee decline: study shows climate change as a main factor, Radio Canada International http://www.rcinet.ca/en/2015/07/14/bumblebee-decline-study-shows-climate-change-as-the-main-factor/
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